Q1) What is DevOps? By the name DevOps, it’s very clear that it’s a collaboration of Development as well as Operations. But one should know that DevOps is not a tool, or a software or framework, DevOps is a Combination of Tools which helps for the automation of whole infrastructure. DevOps is basically and implementation of Agile methodology on Development side as well as Operations side. Q2) Why do we need DevOps? To fulfil the need of delivering more and faster and better application to meet more and more demands of users, we need DevOps. DevOps helps deployment to happen fast compared to any other traditional tools. Q3) Mention the key aspects or principle behind DevOps? The key aspects or principle behind DevOps is: • Infrastructure as a Code • Continuous Integration • Continuous Deployment • Automation • Continuous Monitoring • Security Q4) List out some of the popular tools for DevOps? • Git • Jenkins • Ansible • Puppet • Nagios • Docker • ELK (Elasticsearch, Logstash, Kibana) Q5) what is a version control system? Version Control System (VCS) is a software that helps software developers to work together and maintain a complete history of their work. Some of the feature of VCS as follows: • Allow developers to wok simultaneously • Does not allow overwriting on each other changes. • Maintain the history of every version. There are two types of Version Control Systems: 1. Central Version Control System, Ex: Git, Bitbucket 2. Distributed/Decentralized Version Control System, Ex: SVN Q6) What is Git and explain the difference between Git and SVN? Git is5 a source code management (SCM) tool which handles small as well as large projects with efficiency. It is basically used to store our repositories in remote server such as GitHub. GIT SVN Git is a Decentralized Version Control Tool SVN is a Centralized Version Control Tool Git contains the local repo as well as the full history of the whole project on all the developers hard drive, so if there is a server outage, you can easily do recovery from your team mates local gilt repo. SVN relies only on the central server to store all the versions of the project file Push and pull operations are fast Push and pull operations are slower compared to Git It belongs to 3rd generation Version Control Tool It belongs to 2nd generation Version Control tools Client nodes can share the entire repositories on their local system Version history is stored on server-side repository Commits can be done offline too Commits can be done only online Work are shared automatically by commit Nothing is shared automatically Q7) what language is used in Git? Git is written in C language, and since its written in C language its very fast and reduces the overhead of runtimes. Q8) what is SubGit? SubGit is a tool for migrating SVN to Git. It creates a writable Git mirror of a local or remote Subversion repository and uses both Subversion and Git if you like. Q9) How can you clone a Git repository via Jenkins? First, we must enter the e-mail and user name for your Jenkins system, then switch into your job directory and execute the “git config” command. Q10) What are the Advantages of Ansible? • Agentless, it doesn’t require any extra package/daemons to be installed • Very low overhead • Good performance • Idempotent • Very Easy to learn • Declarative not procedural Q11) How can you define particular space to the file This feature is generally used to give the swap space to the server. Let’s say in below machine I must create swap space of 1GB then, dd if=/dev/zero of=/swapfile1 bs=1G count=1 Q12) What is concept of sudo in Linux? Sudo (superuser do) is a utility for UNIX- and Linux-based systems that provides an efficient way to give specific users permission to use specific system commands at the root (most powerful) level of the system. Q13) What is a Jenkins Pipeline? Jenkins Pipeline (or simply “Pipeline”) is a suite of plugins which supports implementing and integrating continuous delivery pipelines into Jenkins. Q14) How to stop and restart the Docker container? To stop the container: docker stop container ID Now to restart the Docker container: docker restart container ID Q15) What platforms does Docker run on? Docker runs on only Linux and Cloud platforms: • Ubuntu 12.04 LTS+ • Fedora 20+ • RHEL 6.5+ • CentOS 6+ • Gentoo • Arch Linux • openSUSE 12.3+ • CRUX 3.0+ Cloud: • Amazon EC2 • Google Compute Engine • Microsoft Azure • Rackspace Note that Docker does not run on Windows or Mac for production as there is no support, yes you can use it for testing purpose even in windows Q16) What are the tools used for docker networking? For docker networking we generally use kubernets and docker swarm. Q17) What is docker compose? Let’s say you want to run multiple docker container, at that time you must create the docker compose file and type the command docker-compose up. It will run all the containers mentioned in docker compose file. Q18) What is Scrum? Scrum is basically used to divide your complex software and product development task into smaller chunks, using iterations and incremental practices. Each iteration is of two weeks. Scrum consists of three roles: Product owner, scrum master and Team Q19) What does the commit object contain? Commit object contain the following components: It contains a set of files, representing the state of a project at a given point of time reference to parent commit objects An SHAI name, a 40-character string that uniquely identifies the commit object (also called as hash). Q20) Explain the difference between git pull and git fetch? Git pull command basically pulls any new changes or commits from a branch from your central repository and updates your target branch in your local repository. Git fetch is also used for the same purpose, but its slightly different form Git pull. When you trigger a git fetch, it pulls all new commits from the desired branch and stores it in a new branch in your local repository. If we want to reflect these changes in your target branch, git fetch must be followed with a git merge. Our target branch will only be updated after merging the target branch and fetched branch. Just to make it easy for us, remember the equation below: Git pull = git fetch + git merge Q21) What is the relation between Hudson and Jenkins? Hudson was the earlier name of current Jenkins. After some issue faced, the project name was changed from Hudson to Jenkins. Q22) What are the advantages of Jenkins? Advantage of using Jenkins • Bug tracking is easy at early stage in development environment. • Provides a very large numbers of plugin support. • Iterative improvement to the code, code is basically divided into small sprints. • Build failures are cached at integration stage. • For each code commit changes an automatic build report notification get generated. • To notify developers about build report success or failure, it can be integrated with LDAP mail server. • Achieves continuous integration agile development and test-driven development environment. • With simple steps, maven release project can also be automated. Q23) Which SCM tools does Jenkins supports? Source code management tools supported by Jenkins are below: • AccuRev • CVS • Subversion • Git • Mercurial • Perforce • ClearCase • RTC Q24) What is Ansible? Ansible is a software configuration management tool to deploy an application using ssh without any downtime. It is also used for management and configuration of software applications. Ansible is developed in Python language. Q25) How can your setup Jenkins jobs? Steps to set up Jenkins job as follows: Select new item from the menu. After that enter a name for the job (it can be anything) and select free-style job. Then click OK to create new job in Jenkins dashboard. The next page enables you to configure your job, and it’s done. Q26) What is your daily activities in your current role? • Working on JIRA Tickets • Builds and Deployments • Resolving issues when builds and deployments fails by coordinating and collaborating with the dev team • Infrastructure maintenance • Monitoring health of applications Q27) What are the challenges you faced in recent times? I need to implement trending technologies like Docker to automate the configuration management activities in my project by showing POC. Q28) What are the build and deployment failures and how to resolved those? I used to get most of the time out of memory issue. So, I fixed this issue by restarting the server which is not best practice. I did the permanent fix by increase the Perm Gen Space and Heap Space. Q29) How to get a file that consists of last 10 lines of some other file? Tail -10 filename >filename Q30) How to check the exit status of the commands? echo $? Q31) What are the procedures in Prod Deployments? We need to follow the following steps : • Preparation & Planning: What kind of system/technology was supposed to run on what kind of machine • The specifications regarding the clustering of systems • How all these stand-alone boxes were going to talk to each other in a foolproof manner • Production setup should be documented to bits. It needs to be neat, foolproof, and understandable. • It should have all a system configuration, IP addresses, system specifications, & installation instructions. • It needs to be updated as & when any change is made to the production environment of the system Q32) My application is not coming up for some reason? How can you bring it up? We need to follow the steps • Network connection • The Web Server is not receiving users’ request • Checking the logs • Checking the process id’s whether services are running or not • The Application Server is not receiving user’s request (Check the Application Server Logs and Processes) • A network level ‘connection reset’ is happening somewhere. Q33) Did you automate anything in your project? Please explain Yes, I have automated couple of things such as • Password expiry automation • Deleting the older log files • Code quality threshold violations etc. Q34) What is IaC? How you will achieve this? Infrastructure as Code (IaC) is the management of infrastructure (networks, virtual machines, load balancers, and connection topology) in a descriptive model, using the same versioning as DevOps team uses for source code. This will be achieved by using the tools such as Chef, Puppet and Ansible etc. Q35) What is multifactor authentication? What is the use of it? Multifactor authentication (MFA) is a security system that requires more than one method of authentication from independent categories of credentials to verify the user’s identity for a login or other transaction. • Security for every enterprise user — end & privileged users, internal and external • Protect across enterprise resources — cloud & on-prem apps, VPNs, endpoints, servers, privilege elevation and more • Reduce cost & complexity with an integrated identity platform Q36) How to copy the artifacts from one location to another location in cloud. ? Create two S3 buckets, one to use as the source, and the other to use as the destination and then create policies. Q37) How to modify the commit message in git? I must use following command and enter the required message. Git commit –amend Q38) How can you avoid the waiting time for the triggered jobs in Jenkins. First, I will check the Slave nodes capacity, if it is fully loaded then I will add the slave node by doing the following process. Go to the Jenkins dashboard -> Manage Jenkins ->Manage Nodes Create the new node a By giving the all required fields and launch the slave machine as you want. Q39) What are the Pros and Cons of Ansible? Pros: 1. Open Source 2. Agent less 3. Improved efficiency, reduce cost 4. Less Maintenance 5. Easy to understand yaml files Cons: 1. Underdeveloped GUI with limited features 2. Increased focus on orchestration over configuration management 3. SSH communication slows down in scaled environments Q40) How to handle the merge conflicts in git? Follow the steps 1. Create Pull request 2. Modify according to the requirement by sitting with developers 3. Commit the correct file to the branch 4. Merge the current branch with master branch. Q41) How to erase the docker pictures put away at any nearby machine and how to do it for every one of the pictures without a moment’s delay? the direction DOCKER RMI can be utilized to erase the docker picture from nearby machine, though a few pictures may should be constrained in light of the fact that the picture might be utilized by some other holder (or) another picture , to erase pictures you can utilize the mix of directions by DOCKER RMI $(docker pictures – q), where docker pictures will give the docker picture names, to get just the id of docker pictures just , we are utilizing – q switch with docker pictures order. Q42) What is infrastructure as code? Where the Configuration of any servers or tool chain or application stack required for an association can be made into progressively elucidating dimension of code and that can be utilized for provisioning and overseeing foundation components like Virtual Machine, Software, Network Elements, however it varies from contents utilizing any language, where they are a progression of static advances coded, where Version control can be utilized so as to follow condition changes . Precedent Tools are Ansible, Terraform. Q43) What are the zones the version control can acquaint with get proficient DEVOPS practice? A clearly fundamental region of Version Control is Source code the executives, where each engineer code ought to be pushed to a typical storehouse for keeping up assemble and discharge in CI/CD pipelines. Another territory can be Version Control for Administrators when they use Infrastructure as A Code (IAC) apparatuses and rehearses for keeping up The Environment setup. Another Area of Version Control Framework Can be Artifactory Management Using Repositories like Nexus and Docker Hub Q44) Why opensource apparatuses support DEVOPS? Opensource devices dominatingly utilized by any association which is adjusting (or) embraced DevOps pipelines in light of the fact that devops accompanied an attention on robotization in different parts of association manufacture and discharge and change the executives and furthermore framework the board zones. So, creating or utilizing a solitary apparatus is unthinkable and furthermore everything is fundamentally an experimentation period of advancement and furthermore coordinated chops down the advantage of building up a solitary device, so opensource devices were accessible available practically spares each reason and furthermore gives association a choice to assess the device dependent on their need. Q45) What is the distinction among ansible and chef(or) manikin? Ansible is Agentless design the board device, where manikin or gourmet expert needs operator should be kept running on the specialist hub and culinary specialist or manikin depends on draw demonstrate, where your cookbook or show for gourmet expert and manikin separately from the ace will be pulled by the operator and ansible uses ssh to convey and it gives information driven guidelines to the hubs should be overseen , progressively like RPC execution, ansible utilizations YAML scripting, though manikin (or) culinary specialist is worked by ruby uses their own DSL . Q46) What is jinja2 templating in ansible playbooks and their utilization? Jinja2 templating is the Python standard for templating , consider it like a sed editorial manager for Ansible , where it very well may be utilized is when there is a requirement for dynamic change of any config record to any application like consider mapping a MySQL application to the IP address of the machine, where it is running, it can’t be static , it needs modifying it progressively at runtime. Arrangement The vars inside the supports are supplanted by ansible while running utilizing layout module. Q47) What is the requirement for sorting out playbooks as the job, is it vital? Arranging playbooks as jobs , gives greater clarity and reusability to any plays , while consider an errand where MySQL establishment ought to be done after the evacuation of Oracle DB , and another prerequisite is expected to introduce MySQL after java establishment, in the two cases we have to introduce MySQL , yet without jobs need to compose playbooks independently for both use cases , yet utilizing jobs once the MySQL establishment job is made can be used any number of times by summoning utilizing rationale in site.yaml . No, it isn’t important to make jobs for each situation, however making jobs is the best practice in Ansible. Q48) What is the fundamental disservice of docker holders? As the lifetime of any compartments is while pursuing a holder is wrecked you can’t recover any information inside a compartment, the information inside a compartment is lost perpetually, however tenacious capacity for information inside compartments should be possible utilizing volumes mount to an outer source like host machine and any NFS drivers. Q49) What are the docker motor and docker form? Docker motor contacts the docker daemon inside the machine and makes the runtime condition and procedure for any compartment, docker make connects a few holders to shape as a stack utilized in making application stacks like LAMP, WAMP, XAMP Q50) What are the different modes does a holder can be run? Docker holder can be kept running in two modes Connected: Where it will be kept running in the forefront of the framework you are running, gives a terminal inside to compartment when – t choice is utilized with it, where each log will be diverted to stdout screen. Isolates: This mode is typically kept running underway, where the holder is confined as a foundation procedure and each yield inside a compartment will be diverted log records inside/var/lib/docker/logs// and which can be seen by docker logs order. -pernytha roy SRIEIT]]>

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