Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, previously termed Victoria Terminus, epitomizes Mumbai’s architectural prowess and historical essence. This emblematic railway station, recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, serves not merely as a transit point but also mirrors India’s colonial history and its evolution into the modern era.
Initially christened as Victoria Terminus, the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus underwent an official name change to Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Terminus in 2017. Its foundation was laid in 1878, adjacent to the erstwhile Bori Bunder railway station, and saw its completion in 1887, commemorating Queen Victoria’s golden jubilee. The architectural blueprint, crafted by British engineer Frederick William Stevens, drew inspiration from Axel Haig’s preliminary design. This blueprint beautifully amalgamates Victorian Gothic Revival architectural elements with indigenous Indian motifs.
In 1996, to honor Shivaji, the revered 17th-century Maratha Empire’s founder and warrior king, the station’s appellation transitioned from Victoria Terminus to “Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus”. The honorific “Maharaj” was incorporated in 2017, accentuating the deep respect for the legendary monarch.
The station is a masterpiece of the Indo-Saracenic Victorian Gothic Revival architectural style. Its stonework dome, battlements, arches, and distinctive layout bear a striking resemblance to traditional Indian palatial designs. The edifice exemplifies a melding of Victorian Italianate Gothic Revival architectural nuances with age-old Indian forms. This terminus is a testament to the architectural marvels of the 19th-century railway era, embodying cutting-edge structural and technical innovations.
On the exterior, the elaborate woodwork, tiling, decorative metalwork, and brass fixtures, inclusive of the grand staircase balustrades, were the handiwork of apprentices from the Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art. The terminus’s dome, constructed without any central support and featuring interlocking ribs, was hailed as a groundbreaking feat of its period.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus functions as the administrative center for India’s Central Railway and ranks among the nation’s most frequented railway stations. It caters to both long-haul and local trains, encompassing a total of 18 platforms. This station witnesses a daily footfall of over three million travelers, making it a hive of activity.
The station has been a silent observer to pivotal moments in India’s chronicles. A somber instance was the 2008 Mumbai terror attacks, where the station was a primary target, leading to numerous fatalities.
Preservation and Acknowledgment
In acknowledgment of its architectural and historical merit, Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus earned the distinction of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It exemplifies a harmonious blend of two cultural ethos, where British architectural visionaries joined forces with Indian artisans, giving birth to a style unique to Mumbai.
The upkeep and stewardship of the station are paramount. Continuous endeavors are undertaken to enhance its condition and safeguard its legacy for forthcoming generations. The Mumbai Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MMRDA) is orchestrating strategies to revamp the transportation grid, which will influence the terminus and its vicinity.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus transcends its identity as a mere railway hub; it encapsulates Mumbai’s opulent historical tapestry and architectural magnificence. As Mumbai strides forward, this emblematic edifice remains a beacon of its illustrious past and the path to a bright horizon.